2006. Nitrogen Areal Removal Rates for Algal Turf Scrubber® Systems in Nonpoint Source Applications. Zivojnovich, M.J. HydroMentia, Inc. Technical Memorandum. 5 pp.
The Algal Turf Scrubber® achieves high areal removal rates for nitrogen (6,440 lb acre-1 yr-1 @ NIN = 1.85 mg/l). This results in low treatment costs and reduced land requirements when compared to other stormwater treatment technologies.
2005. Economic Analysis of Water Treatment for Phosphorus Removal in Florida. Sano, D., A.W. Hodges and R. L. Degner. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. EDIS No. FE576.
Per-kilogram treatment costs for phosphorus removal by the Algal Turf Scrubber® are lower than for large-scale stormwater treatment areas (STAs) in the Lake Okeechobee Basin.
2005. S-154 Pilot Single Stage Algal Turf Scrubber® (ATS™) Present Worth Cost and By-Product Market Analysis HydroMentia, Inc. Contract C-13933 prepared for the South Florida Water Management District, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
This paper includes a comprehensive study of costs associated with the Algal Turf Scrubber® and marketability of compost material generated when it is applied in the Lake Okeechobee Watershed.
2005. S-154 Pilot Single Stage Algal Turf Scrubber® (ATS™) Final Report. HydroMentia, Inc. Contract C-13933 prepared for the South Florida Water Management District, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
A study of three Algal Turf Scrubber® units was conducted in the Lake Okeechobee watershed to investigate the effect of hydraulic loading rate on phosphorus removal and determine design conditions for full-scale systems. Based on a design of 20 gpm linear foot-1, the Algal Turf Scrubber® removed 820 lb-P acre-1 yr-1, and 6,440 lbs-N acre-1 yr-1.
2005. ATSDEM EXCERPT in S-154 Pilot Single Stage Algal Turf Scrubber® (ATS™) Final Report. HydroMentia, Inc. 53-74 in Contract C-13933 prepared for the South Florida Water Management District, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
Updated Algal Turf Scrubber® Design Model (ATSDEM) is discussed. Model projections and actual Algal Turf Scrubber® performance data from the S-154 pilot project are evaluated.
2005. S-154 Pilot ATS™ – WHS™ Aquatic Plant Treatment System Final Report. HydroMentia, Inc., Contract C-13933 prepared for the South Florida Water Management District, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
A pilot investigation of a two-stage nonpoint source water treatment system in the Lake Okeechobee watershed consisting of a first stage Water Hyacinth Scrubber followed by a second stage Algal Turf Scrubber®. Two operational procedures were assessed: (i) concentration reduction optimization, and (ii) nutrient load removal optimization. During the concentration reduction period, 117 million gallons of water were treated, with total phosphorus levels reduced by 83.7% from 476 ppb to 79 ppb.
2005. Preliminary Compost Market Assessment, Okeechobee, Florida Region. Shiralipour, A., E. Epstein. 22pp.
As awareness of the impacts of over fertilization has increased, so has the demand for high-quality compost. A 2004 survey to identify marketability of aquatic plant based compost documented a compost market demand in a 100 miles radius of the City of Okeechobee from 2004 actual usage of 89,750 tons per year to a market potential of approximately 427,300 tons/year.
2004. Algal Turf Scrubber® (ATS™) History and Application for Low Nutrient Applications. Stewart, E. A. HydroMentia Inc. Technical Memorandum. 17 pp.
This paper describes the evolution of the Algal Turf Scrubber® from its aquaria scale implementation at the Smithsonian Institution to large-scale commercial applications. Investigations included examining boundary layer disruption and flow velocity impacts on algal growth.
2003. Production and Nutrient Removal by Periphyton Grown Under Different Loading Rates of Anaerobically Digested Flushed Dairy Manure. Kebede-Westhead, E., C. Pizarro, W. Mulbry, A. Wilkie. Journal of Phycology, 39, 1275-1282
Nitrogen and phosphorus removal rates are observed under different loading rates of dairy manure. This paper discusses the applicability of ATS™ to treat agricultural non-point source pollution.
2002. Recovery of dairy manure nutrients by benthic freshwater algae. Wilkie, A., W. Mulbry, Bioresource Technology 84, 81-91.
Using an algal treatment system to remove nutrients from dairy waste is beneficial for farm nutrient management. The algal system requires only 23-26% of land when compared to the conventional land application method of nutrient management.
2002. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal rates using small algal turfs grown with dairy manure. Pizarro, C., E. Kebede-Westhead, W. Mulbry, Journal of Applied Phycology 14, 469-473.
Nitrogen and phosphorus removal rates are observed under different loading rates using dairy effluent as sourcewater. This paper discusses the applicability of the Algal Turf Scrubber® to treat agricultural nonpoint source pollution.
1996. A controlled stream mesocosm for tertiary treatment of sewage. Craggs, R., et al. Ecological Engineering 6: 149-169.
The Algal Turf Scrubber® has been used to treat secondarily treated waste water to tertiary levels in an effort to meet California regulations for river discharge.
1993. Phosphorus removal from natural waters using controlled algal production. Adey, W.H., C. Luckett and K. Jensen. Restor. Ecol. 1: 29-39
A series of experiments in the Florida Everglades Agricultural Area were conducted to demonstrate the potential for the Algal Turf Scrubber® to treat low nutrient source water (TP= 12-148 ppb). As is the practice with Algal Turf Scrubber® systems, algal harvesting is shown to closely correlate with phosphorus removal.